Tuesday, May 2, 2017

3 - Command Injection with Burp for NETGEAR router emulated firmware


- Layout for this exercise:

1 - Introduction

- This exercise is based on the Command Injection attack for NetGear devices registered here:


- The vulnerability affects a great range of NetGear products, including the router WNAP320:

- One of the affected scripts is called boardDataWW.php, that will be analyzed for the purpose of attacking it through a Command Injection, sending a crafted input taking advantage of the lack of sanitization:

 - The vulnerable section of the script uses an insecure call to PHP function exec(), accepting any type of input for the parameter 'macAddress':

2 - Setting up the lab

- Unzipping and decompressing the firmware of the NetGear router:

- Extracting the .squashfs file:

- A new folder is extracted:

- Inside, we can find the whole root file system of the firmware, ready to be analyzed:

3 - Analyzing the vulnerable PHP script

- First, let's try to locate the vulnerable script boardDataWW.php, using the command locate:

- Opening boardDataWW.php we find the call to the PHP function exec():

- The parameter 'macAddress' is passed without further sanitization about the standard MAC address format:

- Let's see how exec() works:

4 - Intercepting with Burp

- Once the firmware emulated is available (as done in previous exercise):

- Going to the affected script:

- Enabling the proxy at the browser:

- Launching Burp:

- Enabling Burp to intercept Client requests and Server responses:

- Sending a fake MAC address:

- The message is intercepted:

5 - Launching the attack

- Sending the request to the Repeater:

- Now, let's try to craft the MAC address input so that the content of /etc/passwd is leaked to a file located into the root of the web page:

cp   /etc/passwd   /home/www/passwd # from here it is a comment

- Clicking Go and trying to access passwd from the browser:

- The file passwd is open and saved:

- The content of /etc/passwd has been leaked, so the attack is successful:

- Also, because Burp has been enabled to intercept the Server responses, the whole content is displayed:

- It is interesting to notice that this attack has been launched against an "emulated firmware", and not against an actual physical device.